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词条解释 :High-strength low-alloy steel

来源:2016-01-14 17:00:17
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词条解释 :High-strength low-alloy steel 

High-strength low-alloy steel

High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they aren't made to meet a specific chemical composition, but rather to specific mechanical properties. They have a carbon content between 0.05–0.25% to retain formability and weldability. Other alloying elements include up to 2.0% manganese and small quantities of copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium.[1][2] Copper, titanium, vanadium, and niobium are added for strengthening purposes.[2] These elements are intended to alter the microstructure of carbon steels, which is usually a ferrite-pearlite aggregate, to produce a very fine dispersion of alloy carbides in an almost pure ferrite matrix. This eliminates the toughness-reducing effect of a pearlitic volume fraction, yet maintains and increases the material's strength by refining the grain size, which in the case of ferrite increases yield strength by 50% for every halving of the mean grain diameter. Precipitation strengthening plays a minor role, too. Their yield strengths can be anywhere between 250–590 megapascals (36,000–86,000 psi). Due to their higher strength and toughness HSLA steels usually require 25 to 30% more power to form, as compared to carbon steels.[2]

Copper, silicon, nickel, chromium, and phosphorus are added to increase corrosion resistance. Zirconium, calcium, and rare earth elements are added for sulfide-inclusion shape control which increases formability. These are needed because most HSLA steels have directionally sensitive properties. Formability and impact strength can vary significantly when tested longitudinally and transversely to the grain. Bends that are parallel to the longitudinal grain are more likely to crack around the outer edge because it experiences tensile loads. This directional characteristic is substantially reduced in HSLA steels that have been treated for sulfide shape control.[2]

They are used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures that are designed to handle large amounts of stress or need a good strength-to-weight ratio.[2] HSLA steels are usually 20 to 30% lighter than a carbon steel with the same strength.[3]

HSLA steels are also more resistant to rust than most carbon steels, due to their lack of pearlite – the fine layers of ferrite (almost pure iron) and cementite in pearlite.[citation needed] The Angel of the North at Gateshead, England is a well known example of an unpainted HSLA structure (the actual alloy used is called COR-TEN and includes a small amount of copper). HSLA steels usually have densities of around 7800 kg/m³.[4]

Classifications
Weathering steels: Steels which have better corrosion resistance. A common example is COR-TEN.
Control-rolled steels: Hot rolled steels which have a highly deformed austenite structure that will transform to a very fine equiaxed ferrite structure upon cooling.
Pearlite-reduced steels: Low carbon content steels which lead to little or no pearlite, but rather a very fine grain ferrite matrix. It is strengthened by precipitation hardening.
Microalloyed steels: Steels which contain very small additions of niobium, vanadium, and/or titanium to obtain a refined grain size and/or precipitation hardening.
A common type of microalloyed steel is improved-formability HSLA. It has a yield strength up to 80,000 psi (550 MPa), but only costs 24% more than A36 steel (36,000 psi (250 MPa)). One of the disadvantages of this steel is that it is 30 to 40% less ductile. In the US, these steels are dictated by the ASTM standards A1008/A1008M and A1011/A1011M for sheet metal and A656/A656M for plates. These steels were developed for the automotive industry to reduce weight without losing strength. Examples of uses include door-intrusion beams, chassis members, reinforcing and mounting brackets, steering and suspension parts, bumpers, and wheels.[2][5]

Acicular ferrite steels: These steels are characterized by a very fine high strength acicular ferrite structure, a very low carbon content, and good hardenability.
Dual-phase steels: These steels have a ferrite microstruture that contain small, uniformly distributed sections of martensite. This microstructure gives the steels a low yield strength, high rate of work hardening, and good formability.[1]

低合金高强度钢
   这是一类可焊接的低碳工程结构用钢。其含碳量通常小于0.25%,比普通碳素结构钢有较高的屈服点σs或屈服强度 σ0.2(30~80kgf/mm2)和屈强比σs/σb(0.65~0.95),较好的冷热加工成型性,良好的焊接性,较低的冷脆倾向、缺口和时效敏感性,以及有较好的抗大气、海水等腐蚀能力。其合金元素含量较低,一般在2.5%以下,在热轧状态或经简单的热处理(非调质状态)后使用;因此这类钢能大量生产、广泛使用。各发达工业国家的低合金高强度钢产量约占钢产量的10%(见合金钢)。
  19世纪末,在低合金高强度钢发展的初期,钢种的合金设计只考虑抗拉强度。钢中加入较高含量的Si、Mn、Ni、Cr等某一合金元素以改善某一方面的使用性能,但获得高强度的主要手段仍然依赖于较高的含碳量。随着钢结构由铆接向焊接发展,为了提高钢的抗脆断性能,逐步向降低钢中含碳量和复合合金化的方向变化。20世纪50年代,为节约合金元素,曾采用热处理的方法以获得强度和韧性的良好匹配。60年代,开始了称之为微合金化和控制轧制生产的新阶段,出现了一些新的钢种。至70年代,发展成熟的微珠光体钢和无珠光体钢、针状铁素体钢、超低碳贝氏体钢、热轧双相钢以及低碳马氏体钢在油气输送管线、深井油管、汽车钢板等领域中得到推广应用;预计在80年代,这些钢种在工程结构材料中将占有重要的地位。中国于1957年开始研制低合金高强度钢,结合中国的资源发展了Mn、Mn-V、Mn-Ti、Mn-Nb和Mn-Mo等一系列的钢种,屈服强度为30~70kgf/mm2。
  低合金高强度结构钢:
  是指在冶炼过程中增添一些合金元素,其总量不超过5%的钢材。加入合金元素后钢材强度可明显提高,是钢结构构件的强度、刚度、稳定三个主要控制指标都能充分发挥,尤其在大跨度或者重负荷结构中有点更为突出,一般可比碳素结构钢节约20%左右用钢量。
  国家标准中规定,分为5个牌号,Q295、Q345、Q390、Q420、Q460;由于质量不同分为A、B、C、D、E等级。
  国家标准:
  《低合金高强度结构钢》(GB/T 1591-94 取代GB1591-88)

 
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